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Largest Outbreak of EEE Since 1959 Linked to 13 Deaths –
Neurologists Urged to be Vigilant

More cases of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus disease have been reported in the United States this year—34, including 13 deaths, than in any year since 1959, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and local news reports.
Not until a hard frost kills the mosquitoes that transmit the EEE virus to humans will the risk end for additional cases to occur, at least in northerly regions.
In the meanwhile, neurologists should consider the possibility of EEE in any patients in the Atlantic, Gulf Coast, and Great Lakes regions who present with the classic signs and symptoms of encephalitis: high fever, cognitive confusion, and elevated white cell count in cerebrospinal fluid.
Following positive test results from a state health department, some neuroinfection specialists recommend intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) as empiric therapy.
https://journals.lww.com/neurotodayonline/Fulltext/2019/11070/Largest_Outbreak_of_EEE_Since_1959_Linked_to_13.1.aspx
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Can one protein open the door to West Nile and Zika treatments?
Over the past few years, researchers and medical professionals far and wide have joined forces to confront several viral outbreaks.
Two of the most concerning outbreaks have been of the West Nile and Zika viruses.
The West Nile virus is carried by mosquitoes, and it originally affected only regions in temperate and tropical regions.
However, since it entered the United States in 1999, it has been a constant presence in the country. Rates of infection have been on the rise this past year, with 834 casesTrusted Source across 47 states and the District of Columbia having been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Of these, 65% were severe, leading to neuroinvasive conditions such as meningitis and encephalitis.
A team from Georgia State University in Atlanta conducted this research, the results of which feature in the journal Frontiers in Microbiology. It used mice to find out what biological mechanisms might lead the way to an effective therapy against flaviviruses such as Zika and West Nile.
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/326938.php#1
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.Former US Senator Kay Hagan dead at 66
Former U.S. Sen. Kay Hagan died Monday. She was 66.
“We are heartbroken to share that Kay left us unexpectedly this morning,” her family said in a statement.
“Kay meant everything to us, and we were honored to share her with the people of North Carolina whom she cared for and fought for so passionately as an elected official. Most of all, we already miss her humor and spirit as the hub of our family, a role she loved more than anything. Nobody could light up a room and make people feel welcome like Kay.
Before the onset of encephalitis in 2016, Hagan was genetically energetic. An exercise junkie who loved yoga and Pilates and early-morning runs, she took the same energy to politics, first as a state senator in Raleigh and then in Washington.
Hagan’s three-year battle with encephalitis, caused by Powassan virus, ended when she died in her sleep at home.
https://amp.charlotteobserver.com/news/politics-government/article236736088.html
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Baldwin County resident dies of eastern equine encephalitis
A Baldwin County resident has died from eastern equine encephalitis, a mosquito-borne virus infection, the Alabama Department of Public Health announced today. The person had become ill in September. It’s the first confirmed case of EEE in an Alabama resident since 2014. EEE activity was reported earlier this year in a mosquito sample and sentinel chicken in Mobile County and a horse in Houston County, the ADPH said.
Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain. Severe cases of EEE start with headache, high fever, chills, and vomiting, the ADPH said. Worsening symptoms include disorientation, seizures, and coma. About one-third of patients who develop EEE die. Many who survive have mild to severe brain damage. Symptoms develop 4 to 10 days after a bite from an infected mosquito.
Horses are susceptible to EEE and can die from it. Horses are not likely to spread the infection to people because they are considered to be “dead end” hosts for the virus, as are people. Vaccination can protect horses.
https://www.al.com/news/2019/10/baldwin-county-resident-dies-of-eastern-equine-encephalitis.html
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Enterovirus Blamed for Polio-Like Acute Flaccid Myelitis in Kids
Researchers announced new evidence Monday that a virus is responsible for the sudden paralysis caused by polio-like acute flaccid myelitis (AFM).
The exact cause of AFM has not been determined. But in the study published in Nature, scientists discovered immune reactions to two types of enterovirus in 70% of fluid samples from children with AFM. These reactions appeared in only 6% of samples from a control group of children with neurological conditions other than AFM.
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) caused a nationwide outbreak from Aug. 2014 to Jan. 2015, according to the CDC. During this outbreak, the virus sickened 1,153 people in 49 states and the District of Columbia.
Enterovirus infections are extremely common. They belong to the family of RNA viruses, according to Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD. He said most people infected with enteroviruses have mild symptoms or none at all. Why some of these cases develop into AFM is unknown.
Unlike AFM itself, enterovirus infections are highly contagious, Dr. Davis said. Even if they do not develop AFM, people infected with enterovirus may nonetheless experience significant health symptoms, including encephalitis. Symptoms range from lethargy and drowsiness to personality changes, seizures, and coma.
https://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=225368
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Pennsylvania Game Commission advises hunters to take precautions against EEE virus
The Pennsylvania Game Commission is issuing a warning to the state’s hunters.
With a rare mosquito-transmitted virus documented in the state this year, the Game Commission is encouraging hunters and others who spend time outdoors to take precautions against mosquito bites and report to the agency any dead or strange-acting wild animals they believe to have been infected.
Eastern Equine Encephalitis has been documented in wildlife and livestock in Pennsylvania in recent weeks. It’s been found in two wild turkeys in Erie County, a wild deer in Luzerne County, captive pheasants in Monroe County and horses in Carbon County.
No human cases have been reported in Pennsylvania, but the disease, which is similar to West Nile virus, can infect humans.
https://triblive.com/news/pennsylvania/pennsylvania-game-commission-advises-hunters-to-take-precautions-against-eee-virus/
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Boy comatose due to Japanese encephalitis wakes up after 2 years
In 2017 the boy contracted Japanese encephalitis, and the poor family decided to get him treated at the Vietnam National Hospital of Pediatrics.
He fell into a coma and his limbs were paralyzed, and doctors had to put him on a ventilator. The family decided to bring him to the Hoa Binh General Hospital closer home.
Tinh, who was in charge of him, said: “His condition did not improve much in the last one year. He could not stay away from the mechanical ventilator.” He suffered from brain damage due to complications caused by Japanese encephalitis.
On the morning of October 18, Tinh visited his patient as usual and realized that the boy seemed to be regaining consciousness. He gently instructed him to “please imitate my gestures” and to practice some simple movements like closing and opening the eyes, moving the eyes from right to left and putting the tongue in and out.
https://e.vnexpress.net/news/life/trend/boy-comatose-wakes-up-after-2-years-4000385.html
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Mosquito Virus Detected for the First Time in Coachella, North Shore
Mosquito samples in Coachella and North Shore tested positive for sickness-inducing Saint Louis Encephalitis virus for the first time this year, the Coachella Valley Mosquito and Vector Control District reported today.
The test, conducted on Wednesday, showed that mosquito season may last longer this year than usual, said Tammy Gordon, public information officer for the district.
Most people infected with Saint Louis Encephalitis virus (SLEV) show no signs of apparent illness, but symptoms for those who become ill include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting and tiredness, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
No human cases of SLEV have been reported in the county in 2019.
In the past two weeks, West Nile virus has also been detected in mosquito samples from La Quinta, Mecca and Oasis, Gordon said. There have been 10 human cases of West Nile virus in Riverside County in 2019. Similar to SLEV, most people infected with West Nile virus do not feel sick, though some may develop a fever or other symptoms, according to the CDC.
https://patriotla.iheart.com/content/2019-10-17-mosquito-virus-detected-for-the-first-time-in-coachella-north-shore/
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1st Eastern Equine Encephalitis Human Death Reported in Indiana
Indiana has reported the first human death due to mosquito-borne disease Eastern equine encephalitis in more than 20 years.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed the death, accepting that it is the first death since 1988. It was also confirmed that the patient belonged to the Elkhart County.
Dr Kris Box, state health commissioner, said in a statement, “It’s hard to imagine losing a loved one because of a mosquito bite, but unfortunately, mosquitoes carry diseases that can be life-threatening.”
According to CDC, Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare disease spread by infected mosquitoes which are known to cause brain inflammation. While survivors typically have mild to severe brain damage, one-third of those infected with EEE die. The other symptoms of EEE, contracted from a mosquito bite, including symptoms of chills, fever, body aches and joint pain.
https://www.news18.com/news/world/1st-eastern-equine-encephalitis-human-death-reported-in-indiana-2352805.html
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Want mosquitoes to buzz off? Remember to ‘tip and toss,’ officials say
Suffering from red welts that seem worse than usual?
If so, it’s possible that an Aedes mosquito — pronounced “aid-dees,” like the decade — just got a sip of your blood.
The invasive pest, which arrived in Orange County within the past four years or so, is a nastier version of the mosquitoes that have long called the county home. And it is continuing to spread.
Hyland said last summer’s warm weather may have led some people to overwater their plants, creating an environment where mosquitoes could thrive. Community gardens and plant kits, typical during the school year, also can provide a fertile breeding ground for the pests, which swarm to flower pots and water puddles, Hyland added.
Children are especially susceptible to Aedes bites, Hyland said, because the mosquitoes find them running around schoolyards during the day. The mosquitoes are attracted to a person’s heat and natural smell, she added.
“Sometimes they’re going to probe you 40 times just to find the blood,” she said.
https://www.latimes.com/socal/daily-pilot/news/story/2019-10-23/want-mosquitoes-to-buzz-off-remember-to-tip-and-toss-officials-say
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Lincoln Park Zoo’s former male lion that suddenly died at Kansas zoo had fungal infection
Officials say an African lion that died at the Rolling Hills Zoo in Salina, Kansas suffered from encephalitis caused by a fungal infection.
The lion, called Sahar, died Sept. 27.
Zoo officials announced Thursday that a necropsy performed at Kansas State University found the infection caused lesions on the lion’s brain and a lung. It said Sahar had no outward signs of illness until the day before his death. The fungus is not contagious.
https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-lincoln-park-zoo-lion-dies-kansas-20191019-bzkrrzp6fvg45mbql5zzkkf6c4-story.html
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State veterinarian confirms case of eastern equine encephalitis in Tennessee
A horse in West Tennessee has tested positive for eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), a virus that can be fatal for horses and humans, according to a Friday news release from the Tennessee Department of Agriculture.
The state’s agriculture and health departments advised citizens to take precautions to protect themselves and their livestock. The horse in Gibson County showed signs of illness, the release states. Testing confirmed it was suffering from EEE, and the horse was euthanized.
Mosquitoes transmit EEE. An infected horse cannot directly transmit the virus to other horses or humans through contact, but mosquitoes can transmit the virus from horses to humans, posing a public health risk.
https://www.timesfreepress.com/news/local/story/2019/oct/18/state-veterinarian-confirms-case-eastern-equine-encephalitis-tennessee/506183/
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Guest column: Enlist genetically modified mosquitoes in war against their own
In recent weeks, there has been media hype around a new study on genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes, with the most extreme headlines warning of “strengthened wild bugs.” But these kinds of messages are misleading and undercut a potentially valuable new tool to combat mosquitoes and the diseases they carry. This new technology could radically change pest control around the world, and right here in Louisiana. It’s time to start taking these new developments seriously as the future of pest control, while learning important lessons from our past mistakes.
Two important disease-carrying mosquitoes are in Louisiana: the yellow fever mosquito, or Aedes aegypti, and the Asian tiger mosquito, or Aedes albopictus. Both mosquitoes are not native to the United States, but they now plague our communities and are spreading. They can carry the viruses that cause yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and some types of encephalitis, like eastern equine encephalitis. The yellow fever mosquito is particularly good at transmitting the Zika virus.
https://www.theadvocate.com/baton_rouge/opinion/article_e7b94746-ef6e-11e9-b060-5b0748d1174c.html/
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Rare eastern equine encephalitis has killed 9 people in the U.S. in 2019
2019 is the worst eastern equine encephalitis outbreak since tracking began in 2003, with 31 cases and nine deaths from the brain infection so far.
The worst outbreak of eastern equine encephalitis since U.S. health officials began monitoring the mosquito-borne disease 15 years ago is prompting aerial bug spraying and dire warnings to avoid the biting insects well into fall. As of October 1, 31 cases — including nine deaths — have been reported by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Known as EEE or Triple-E for short, the incurable brain infection is still relatively rare — there have been only 103 reported infections in the United States in the past decade. Only five percent of people bitten by an infected mosquito will develop the disease. But about a third of EEE patients die, and many who survive experience permanent neurological problems.
“We don’t know some of the basic details about these [mosquito-transmitted] diseases, unfortunately,” says pathobiologist Stephen Higgs, director of the Biosecurity Research Institute at Kansas State University in Manhattan. “The ideal is to anticipate outbreaks, which is very, very difficult. But we need to be prepared for an outbreak when it comes.”
https://www.sciencenews.org/article/rare-disease-eastern-equine-encephalitis-killed-nine-people-2019
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Deaths from mosquito-borne EEE virus prompt calls to cancel outdoor events in Michigan
DETROIT – Three Michigan residents have died from the rare mosquito-borne virus Eastern equine encephalitis and four others have been sickened by the disease, state health officials said Tuesday, amid the biggest outbreak in more than a decade.
Those who live in all eight of the affected counties – Kalamazoo, Cass, Van Buren, Berrien, Barry, St. Joseph, Genesee and Lapeer counties – are urged to consider canceling, postponing or rescheduling outdoor events that occur at or after dusk, especially those that involve children, according to the state Department of Health and Human Services.
“Michigan is currently experiencing its worst Eastern equine encephalitis outbreak in more than a decade,” said Dr. Joneigh Khaldun, MDHHS chief medical executive and chief deputy for health. “The ongoing cases reported in humans and animals and the severity of this disease illustrate the importance of taking precautions against mosquito bites.”
https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2019/09/17/mosquito-borne-eee-cancel-outdoor-events-michigan-officials-urge/2358633001/
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Rhode Island girl, 6, nearly dies after contracting rare mosquito-borne EEE virus: ‘We could have lost her’
A young Rhode Island girl narrowly escaped death after contracting the rare and potentially deadly Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) virus, her family says.
Late last month, 6-year-old Star Jackman, of Coventry, came home from her second day of school complaining of a headache. Her symptoms worsened over the next few days; Star developed a fever and began to vomit.
On Sept. 1, her parents, Reginald and Jessica Jackman, took the young girl to a local clinic. Roughly half an hour later, the little girl was in an ambulance on the way to Hasbro Children’s Hospital.
“It escalated that fast,” Reginald told the Providence Journal.
Doctors were unable to pin down exactly what was ailing Star, whose heart-rate plummeted at one point, reported Patch. The normally vibrant girl was so weak that she had trouble lifting her head.
Star’s EEE diagnosed was confirmed Sept. 10, more than a week after she was rushed to the hospital.
Though the young girl is on the mend, her battle with EEE is not entirely over.
The virus affected her motor skills and memory. At one point, while still in the hospital, Star had trouble recognizing her parents and confused her family members’ names, her parents told the Journal. Her memory has improved since, however.
Star also has issues with muscle memory. Walking — once easy for the young girl who loves to dance and sing — is now difficult. Her pace is unsteady and she wobbles. She occasionally suffers from seizures and becomes fatigued easily.
The young girl is now working with both occupational and physical therapists, Reginald told Patch.
“It could last a few days, a month or the rest of her life. We just don’t know,” he said of her recovery timeline.
https://www.foxnews.com/health/rhode-island-girl-eee-virus/

Mosquito-borne virus victim went from healthy to brain dead in 9 days
(CNN) – A Michigan man went from healthy to brain dead in just nine days after contracting Eastern equine encephalitis, his brother said.
Gregg McChesney, 64, was a “perfectly healthy, happy human being” less than two weeks before his August 19 death from the rare mosquito-borne virus…
The virus, known as EEE, is a rare but potentially fatal mosquito-borne virus.
Only five to 10 human cases of EEE are typically reported each year, with about 30% of all cases result in death, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Signs include sudden onset of headache, high fever, chills and vomiting. More severe symptoms include disorientation, seizures and coma, the CDC said.
https://www.cnn.com/2019/09/18/us/eee-cases-death-in-9-days/index.html

Lily Mae Avant, Texas 10-Year-Old Who Contracted Brain-Eating Amoeba In Brazos River, Dies
FORT WORTH, Texas (CBSDFW.COM) – A 10-year-old Central Texas girl who contracted a brain-eating amoeba after swimming in the Brazos River has died, her family confirmed.
Lily Mae Avant died at Cook Children’s Medical Center in Fort Worth after she was transferred there last week for treatment.
According to her family, it all started just days after she went swimming in the Brazos River. First she developed a headache and fever but then her condition quickly worsened.
Doctors at Cook Children’s determined she was suffering from primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), which is an infection to the brain caused by the amoeba Naegleria fowleri.
https://dfw.cbslocal.com/2019/09/16/lily-mae-avant-brain-eating-amoeba-brazos-river-texas-dies/?fbclid=IwAR0oi6gEFuk2syinSd0t1f5NQvayPiWHPisUiVf7P9WZ-RhP_zdjRbtaHao

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Military Uses Layered Approach Against Diseases Borne by Ticks, Mosquitoes
Mosquitoes aren’t just an annoyance at summer barbecues. In many parts of the world, they carry pathogens, including West Nile virus, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis Zika, dengue, yellow fever and malaria.
Until the 1950s, there were outbreaks of malaria in the United States, said Navy Lt. Cmdr. James C. Dunford. Improved sanitation and mosquito monitoring and control are why it’s rare today, he said.
Dunford and James J. English, both entomologists and assistant professors in the Uniformed Services University’s Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, spoke at a Military Health System Bug Week media roundtable in Falls Church, Virginia, yesterday to highlight the Defense Department’s efforts to combat the effects of bug-borne illnesses around the world.
https://www.defense.gov/explore/story/Article/1922685/military-uses-layered-approach-against-diseases-borne-by-ticks-mosquitoes

West Chester family battling little-known disease is taking steps to raise awareness
It has been a challenging and occasionally frustrating decade for the Fledderjohn family of West Chester, who have worked tirelessly to accommodate for the medical needs of their son, Alex. His diagnosis with the rare disease Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis has led the family to provide full-time for him. Because they struggled at times to find information and support for the disease, the family has organized an event Saturday to bring people together and answer questions to raise awareness.
It took six neurologists to finally make the diagnosis, which Therese says is due to a lack of information on the disease and its wide range of symptoms that often mimic other diseases.
https://www.journal-news.com/news/local/west-chester-family-battling-little-known-disease-taking-steps-raise-awareness/5oPV5SMEzgJyVHppfhFgqL/
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A deadly mosquito-borne virus that causes brain swelling in humans has been detected in Florida
Florida health officials are warning of an uptick in a mosquito-borne virus known as Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE). Several sentinel chickens tested positive for EEE, which can spread to humans via infected mosquitoes and cause brain infection and swelling, the Florida Department of Health in Orange County said in a Thursday statement. Sentinel chickens are fowl that are tested regularly for the West Nile virus and EEE. Their blood can show the presence of the diseases, but they don’t suffer from the effects of the viruses.
Following the positive tests for the sentinel chickens in Orange County, the health department said “the risk of transmission to humans has increased.”
Only about seven cases of the EEE virus in humans are reported in the US each year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says. However, the disease can be fatal: about 30% of people who contract it die, according to the CDC. Many survivors have ongoing neurologic problems.
https://www.cnn.com/2019/07/28/health/eastern-equine-encephalitis-mosquito-outbreak-chickens-florida-trnd/index.html?no-st=1564558828

Three more cases of West Nile reported in Southern Nevada
The Southern Nevada Health District is issuing precautions as three additional cases of West Nile have been reported in Clark County, bringing the total number to five this year.
According to SNHD, two individuals were over the age of 50. The previous two cases of West Nile also included two females over the age of 50 with neuroinvasive disease.
West Nile virus-positive mosquitoes have tested positive in 25 zip codes, according to the health district. Mosquitoes testing positive for the St. Louis encephalitis virus were found in ten zip codes.
https://news3lv.com/news/local/three-more-cases-of-west-nile-reports-brings-total-to-five-in-so-nevada

Maine Confirmed Its First Case of a Rare Tick-Borne Virus in Years. Here’s What to Know About Powassan
Health officials have confirmed that an individual in Maine is sick with Powassan virus disease, marking the first time since 2017 that a person in the state has come down with the rare and serious tick-borne illness.
The Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention announced Wednesday that a southern Maine resident was hospitalized for Powassan encephalitis—brain inflammation associated with the virus—after showing symptoms in late June. The announcement did not specify the individual’s current condition, but health officials doctors to stay vigilant about the potential spread of Powassan throughout the summer and early fall.
Here’s what to know about the tick-borne Powassan virus disease.
https://time.com/5634928/maine-powassan-virus-ticks

What is EEE Virus? Mosquitoes Carrying Deadly Virus Found in New York and Massachusetts
Health officials have confirmed the potentially life-threatening Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) virus has been found in mosquitoes in both New York and Massachusetts.
New York’s Oswego County Health Department said on Tuesday that two mosquitoes taken from a field station at Toad Harbor Swamp in West Monroe tested positive for the EEE virus, Sycaruse.com reported.
If an individual is bitten and becomes infected, it can take between four to 10 days for symptoms of EEE involving encephalitis (EEEV) to emerge. These symptoms include headache, chills, vomiting and a high fever. They may then feel disorientated, experience seizures and fall into a coma. Doctors can diagnose EEE with a blood test.
https://www.newsweek.com/what-eee-virus-mosquitoes-deadly-new-york-massachusetts-1450862

Bayou Vista, Louisiana Mosquito Pool Positive for St. Louis Encephalitis
St. Mary Parish Government Mosquito Control, through its surveillance program, received a positive mosquito pool for St. Louis encephalitis Friday in the Bayou Vista area.
St. Louis encephalitis is an arbovirus that is transmitted by mosquitoes in nature among birds the same way West Nile virus is transmitted. The primary mosquito vector is the Culex quinquefasciatus and the primary vertebrate host is the house sparrow. SLE is commonly found in urban areas.
This mosquito pool was collected from one of the gravid trap collections in the Bayou Vista area, so in response to this a spray truck will run three consecutive nights in Bayou Vista. The mosquito control crew will also be out doing additional larviciding in areas where water is holding in Bayou Vista.
https://www.stmarynow.com/news-local/bayou-vista-mosquito-pool-positive-st-louis-encephalitis

New DNA test beats others at hunting down germs that inflame the brain, UC study finds
Right now, neurologists don’t have one test that can identify multiple causes of inflammatory neurological diseases such as encephalitis and meningitis. But UC San Francisco researchers say their new DNA test hunted down more of these pathogens than any conventional test did in a newly released study.
Inflammatory neurological diseases are rare, costly to treat, difficult to diagnose and life-threatening.
The pioneering test developed by neurological researchers at UCSF is moving doctors closer to providing patients and their loved ones with the answers they seek. The test uses gene sequencing to identify more causes of these mysterious ailments than any conventional test now being used, according to study released late last week in the New England Journal of Medicine.
https://www.sacbee.com/news/local/health-and-medicine/article231592068.html
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Animal Model to Help Study “Brain on Fire” Disease – anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis
Scientists have developed an animal model that may provide a path toward improving the diagnosis and treatment of the devastating brain disease, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, that was chronicled in the bestselling autobiography “Brain on Fire.” The book, along with a 2017 movie by the same name, traces newspaper reporter Susannah Cahalan’s harrowing descent into the throes of the disease.
The autoimmune disease is triggered by an attack on one of the key neurotransmitter receptors in the brain, the NMDA receptor. The disease is characterized by intellectual changes, severe memory loss, seizures, and even death. The study, published today in the journal Science Translational Medicine, reports an original animal model for this puzzling disease.
https://www.technologynetworks.com/tn/news/animal-model-to-help-study-brain-on-fire-disease-321660
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WCU Studies ways to reduce mosquito-borne illnesses – La Crosse encephalitis
This time of year, Western North Carolina (WCU) sees cases of La Crosse encephalitis caused from mosquito bites, often in children.
The university is studying new prevention techniques using specialized traps.
https://wlos.com/news/local/wcu-studies-ways-to-reduce-mosquito-born-illnesses
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Vector borne diseases on rise in India
East Singhbhum is worst hit by Japanese Encephalitis this year.
The SVBDCP has so far tested 457 samples for JE and 25 of them were positive.
https://www.dailypioneer.com/2019/state-editions/vector-borne-diseases-on-rise.html
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Swiss Government Recommending Meningoencephalitis Vaccination for 2019
Cases of tick-borne encephalitis in Switzerland reached a record high in 2018 with 377 cases, reported the Federal Office of Public Health (FOPH).
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) can cause severe meningoencephalitis.
In response to this negative trend, the FOPH is recommending vaccination against meningoencephalitis throughout Switzerland during 2019.
This Swiss vaccination program is recommended for both adults and children, who are above the age of six, who are living in or staying in Switzerland.
https://www.precisionvaccinations.com/switzerland-reported-377-cases-tick-borne-encephalitis-during-2018
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176 Children Died In Bihar, India Due To Acute Encephalitis This Year; 872 Cases Were Reported
In June, Bihar reported hundreds of cases of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES), resulting into deaths of more than 150 children. The outbreak also exposed state’s poor healthcare facilities and apathy towards the condition of children.
As many as 872 cases of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) were reported in Bihar in the year 2019. Of 872 reported cases, 176 died of the disease, said State Health and Family Welfare Ashwini Kumar Choubey in a reply to a question in Lok Sabha.
The Japanese Encephalitis also claimed one life while 16 cases of it were reported in the state of Bihar.
https://www.indiatimes.com/news/india/176-children-have-already-died-in-bihar-due-to-encephalitis-and-872-new-cases-reported-state-govt-reveals-371186.html
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Case of West Nile virus in a horse reported in Boaz, AL
The Alabama Department of Public Health said a horse near the city of Boaz in Marshall County has tested positive for West Nile virus.
It is the first reported case of the year in Alabama. The department says one case of Eastern Equine Encephalitis has also been reported in a horse.
https://www.al.com/news/huntsville/2019/07/case-of-west-nile-virus-reported-in-boaz.html
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DEADLY OUTBREAK Horrific ‘brain fever’ outbreak leaves 152 children dead in India’s poorest state
Youngsters in Bihar, India’s poorest state, are believed to have died of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome, caused by dehydration and malnutrition.
India’s top court ordered an investigation into the outbreak on Monday, after hearing a petition accusing the state and central governments of negligence.
The disease has reached endemic proportions in Muzaffarpur, a poor district of the eastern state of Bihar, which has some of the worst child health statistics anywhere in the world.
The fatalities have occurred in 20 of the state’s 38 districts.
https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/9366966/brain-fever-outbreak-children-india/
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Japanese encephalitis: Life ‘on hold’ for Sophie Williams
The life of a university lecturer who contracted Japanese encephalitis during field work in China has been “on hold” in a home miles away from her partner. Dr Sophie Williams, 35, from Bangor, was bitten by a mosquito in 2015 while researching illegal trade in orchids. She collapsed, and was found by her flatmate. Sophie was transferred from a Chinese hospital to Bangkok where she spent weeks in a coma.
One in three people who develop serious symptoms do not survive.
Since returning to the UK, Sophie has spent time in various hospitals and now lives in a care home for the elderly in Wrexham. She is on a ventilator and needs 24-hour care.
https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-48528015
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Three West Nile Virus cases reported across Oklahoma
Long-lasting complications of WNV disease can include difficulty concentrating, migraine headaches, extreme muscle weakness and tremors, and paralysis of a limb.
https://kfor.com/2019/06/07/three-west-nile-virus-cases-reported-across-oklahoma/
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Dane County Resident Dies with State’s First Case of St. Louis encephalitis since 1981
A Dane County resident has died after having the first human case of St. Louis encephalitis in Wisconsin since 1981, health officials said Friday….
“…only six human cases reported in the state since 1964 and no outbreaks ever reported.
Like West Nile, St. Louis encephalitis is spread to people through the bite of an infected mosquito. It is not transmitted person to person, the health department said.”
The virus can cause fever, headache, nausea and fatigue, typically starting five to 15 days after a mosquito bite. In rare cases, it can cause stiff neck, disorientation, tremors, inflammation of the brain and coma. Older adults and people with weakened immune systems are most at risk.
https://madison.com/wsj/news/local/health-med-fit/dane-county-resident-dies-with-state-s-first-case-of/article_83eabd83-b539-50ec-88af-9899d0dead59.html
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Michigan Sees Human Eastern Equine Encephalitis Case
Eastern equine encephalitis is one of the most dangerous mosquito-borne diseases in the U.S. It can be fatal and often leaves survivors with brain damage.
Southwestern Michigan has experienced outbreaks of the disease in people and horses in the past, with the most recent outbreaks occurring in the early 1980s, mid-1990s and 2010. Health officials say it’s the first human case reported in Michigan since 2016, when three people were infected.
https://www.usnews.com/news/best-states/michigan/articles/2018-09-18/michigan-sees-human-eastern-equine-encephalitis-case
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Bedford Man Recovering from West Nile Refuses to Quit
Volunteer work fills his soul. “I think it’s satisfying,” Stockton said. “You’re serving the public.” A devotion to giving back, even after so much was taken from him.
“It kind of flashes in front of your eyes how quickly you can die,” Stockton said.
Alton Stockton faced a long, rocky road in reclaiming his life.
He still couldn’t use his right leg or left shoulder and he had to use a wheelchair.
It was West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease. “Never really worried about it. Mosquitoes never bothered me,” he said. “As you start reading and searching about it, you go…holy! This is a nasty disease.”
“We went through the evaluation and she said, you know, there’s a possible chance you may never get out of the wheelchair,” Stockton recalled of the conversation with Knight. “And I said, you don’t know me. I’m going to get out of the wheelchair.” So he worked and worked some more. Tirelessly. Fearlessly. Strengthening and surviving.
https://www.wfaa.com/article/news/bedford-man-recovering-from-west-nile-refuses-to-quit/287-600234771
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North Carolina Mom Warns Parents After Mosquito Bite Leaves 6-Year-Old Son in ICU:
‘I Want People to Know This Can Happen’ 
A North Carolina mother recently used Facebook to warn parents about La Crosse encephalitis, a virus transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito.
“And so it’s breaking all of our hearts to see the spunkiest one out of five brothers down,” LoriAnne Surrett told television station WLOS in Western North Carolina.
https://ktla.com/2018/08/13/mom-warns-parents-after-mosquito-bite-leaves-6-year-old-son-in-icu
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World Encephalitis Day – 02/22/18
Initiated by the Encephalitis Society of the UK, this date is set aside each year to raise awareness of this brain disorder. Encephalitis411.org was founded as a U.S. based nonprofit, to also raise awareness, and to directly impact those who live in the U.S.
Encephalitis411 encourages all survivors, caregivers, advocates, and medical professionals to wear RED on February 22nd, and to talk about encephalitis, and to watch our video series to learn more.
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNFulUgjUIXibvhZU_JDqwA
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Neuroimmunology
Here’s a link to a recent webinar on the emerging field of neuroimmunology by Dr. Amanda Piquet.
https://www.mscenter.org/education/seminars-workshops/webinars/790-webinar-the-emerging-and-evolving-field-of-neuroimmunology
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Neurofatigue
Most encephalitis survivors deal with fatigue. This is an interesting article.
http://www.braininjury-explanation.com/consequences/invisible-consequences/neurofatigue
Resources: Brain injury-explanation, Rehabilitationcentre de Hoogstraat, Cognitive Therapy (Joke Heins, Rose Sevat, Corine Werkhoven) nebasnsg.nl, stroke association of The Netherlands, The rehab group ABI webportal
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Respite care notebook for parent caregivers of children
Here’s a link to a respite care notebook for parent caregivers of children with severe illness: https://globalgenes.org/raredaily/respite-notebook-intended-to-help-caregivers-take-a-break/
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Members of a new UVA institute began planning for action to mitigate infectious disease risks
Microbiology professor Alison Criss and chemistry professor Linda Columbus co-lead UVA’s new Global Infectious Diseases Institute
https://news.virginia.edu/content/global-infectious-diseases-institute-poised-move-forward-after-first-meeting
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Wendy Station’s story in Rare Revolution Magazine
Wendy is an encephalitis survivor, as well as Founder and President of Encephalitis Global.
http://www.rarerevolutionmagazine.com/blog/encephalitis-global-celebrates-world-encephalitis-day

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